Peredvizhniki (The Wanderers; Russian: Передвижники) - group of Russian painters who in the second half of the 19th century rejected the restrictive and foreign-inspired classicism of the Russian Academy to form a new realist and nationalist art that would serve the common man. Believing that art should be useful, a vehicle for expressing humanitarian and social ideals, they produced realistic portrayals of inspiring or pathetic subjects Russian middle-class and peasant life in a literal, easily understood style. Forming a Society of Wandering Exhibitions in 1870, they organized mobile exhibitions of their works in an effort to bring serious art to the people. The most prominent Russian artists of the 1870s and 1880s, including Ivan Kramskoy, Ilya Repin, Vasily Surikov, Vasily Perov, and Vasily Vereshchagin, belonged to this group. The movement dominated Russian art for nearly 30 years and was the model for the Socialist Realism of the Soviet.
Peredvizhniki were a group of Russian realist artists who in protest to academic restrictions formed an artists' cooperative which evolved into the Society for Traveling Art Exhibitions in 1870. The society formed in 1870 in St. Petersburg under Ivan Kramskoy, Grigory Miasoedov, Nikolay Gay and Vasily Perov's initiative during a struggle of the avant-garde art forces of the country for democratic ideals, and in a counterbalance to the official center of art — the St.Petersburg Academy of Arts. The society developed the best traditions of the Artel of Artists headed by Kramskoy, who became the leader of the new association. Peredvizhniki were influenced by the public and aesthetic views of Vissarion Belinsky and Nikolay Chernyshevsky.
From 1871 to 1923 the society arranged 48 mobile exhibitions in St.Petersburg and Moscow, after which they were shown in Kiev, Kharkov, Kazan, Orel, Riga, Odessa and other cities. As realist artists they showed the many-sided characters of social life, often with critical tendency. Their art showed not only poverty but also the beauty of folk way of life; not only suffering but also fortitude, strength of characters. In the humanistic art of Peredvizhniki there was resolute condemnation of the Russian autocratic orders; the emancipation movement of Russian people was shown with empathy (The Arrest of Propagandist; Refuse from Confession; Not Expected by Ilya Efimovich Repin). The most important meaning in their art was social-urban life, and later in historic art depicting the people (The Morning of the Execution of Streltsy by Vasily Surikov).
The Peredvizhniki’s society, during their blossoming (1870-1890), developed an increasingly wider scope, and increasing naturalness and freedom of the images. In contrast to the traditional dark palette of the time, they chose a freer, wider manner with a lighter palette in depicting light. They aimed for naturalness in their images, and depiction of peoples relationship with their surroundings.
The innovative, originally folk art of Peredvizhniki, served as effective means of democratic, public, moral and aesthetic education of many generations and became an important factor of development of Russian emancipation movement by helping grow the revolutionary consciousness of the society. The society united almost all most talented art forces of the country.
Among Peredvizhniki there were artists of Ukraine, Latvia, and Armenia. The society also showed the work of Mark Antokolski, Vasily Vereshchagin, and Andrei Ryabushkin. Important in the development of Peredvizhniki’s art was critic and democrat Vladimir Stasov, and Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov who showed their in his gallery and rendered them important material and moral support. The authority and public influence of the society steadily grew, and the autocracy had to stop the initial tactics of clip (sic) and hunting of Peredvizhniki. Attempts were made to subordinate their activity, and raise the falling value of Academy of Arts sanctioned works.
By the 1890s in Academy of Arts structure was including Peredvizhniki art, and showing their influence in national art schools.
At the turn of the 20th century Peredvizhniki began to lose their depth as a reflection of a life. The influence of the society waned, and some of the artists began showing socialist ideas reflecting the development of working class movement. Many of the Peredvizhniki entered in the Soviet art culture, carried the realistic traditions of 19th century and helped form the art of Socialist realism. In 1898, their influence was superseded by Mir iskusstva, which advanced modern trends in Russian art. The 48th exhibition of Peredvizhniki in 1923 was the last one. Most members joined the Association of Artists in revolutionary Russia, whose members leaned on the traditions of Peredvizhniki and aspired to create of art understandable by people and faithfully reflecting the validity.
From left to right – Savicki, Kramskoy, P.Brullov, Yaroshenko, Shishkin.
From left to right sit – V.Makovsky, Savicki, Kramskoy, Miasoedov, P.Brullov, Surikov, Polenov.
Stand: N.Makovsky, Beggrov, Ammosov, Ivachov, Litovchenko, Shishkin, Nevrev, Volkov, Lemoh, Kiselev, Yaroshenko, Prianichbikov, Repin.
Stand: Miasoedov, Savicki, Polenov, Volkov, Surikov, Shishkin, Yaroshenko, P.Brullov, Beggrov.
Sit: Ammosov, Kiselev, Nevrev, V.Makovsky, Litovchenko, Lemoh, Kramskoy, Repin, Ivachov, N.Makovsky.
Clodt, Mikhail K.
Clodt, Mikhail P.